Motivation for WordsMotivation deals with the connection between
name and sense. Basically, there are three motivations
Ⅰ. Onomatopoeic motivation—defining the
principle of motivation by (1) ______.
—primary onomatopoeia: the (2) ______ of sound
—(3) ______ onomatopoeia: association of
sound with senses
e. g. -ump suggests (4) ______.
Ⅱ. (5) ______ motivation—defining motivation by
It is closely connected with figures of speech:
—(6) ______: containing an implied comparison
—metonymy: naming something by its attributes
—synecdoche: the (7) ______ of a part for a
whole or vice versa
Ⅲ. Logical motivation—defining a concept by
There are two (8) ______ involved in giving a
definition: the first is to identify the genus and the
second is to (9) ______ the item being defined from
other similar species in the same genus.
There may be factors leading to loss of motivation.
They are change in morphological structure and change
in (10) ______.
According to Edward, in deciding the location of a house, people should consider all the following EXCEPT
A the type of life they enjoy.
B the price of the house.
C the distance between the house and the place of work.
D the school their children can attend.
Which of the following is an ideal place for quiet people to live in?
A The city.
B The downtown.
C Tile countryside.
D City suburbs.
According to the interview, which is the most common type of houses?
A Detached houses.
B Semi-detached houses.
C Town houses.
D Old houses.
What does Edward think of old houses compared to new ones?
A They are definitely cheaper.
B They are too old to live in.
C They may be cheaper but repairs and renovation cost much.
D They need to be checked professionally from time to time.
What is Edward's attitude when talking about gardens attached to houses?
What is NOT true about Nicodemus?
A It has now developed into a modern city.
B The first settlers there were all freed black slaves.
C It used to be a barren spot.
D It is part of the black pioneer culture.
The first public building in Nicodemus was
A a small hotel.
B a schoolhouse.
C a hut.
D two churches.
Health experts meet in Geneva to
A draw a map of affected area.
B make a plan for fighting against bird flu.
C make a combat.
D find ways to prevent human flu.
Director Klaus Stohr predicts that about ______ people would be put into hospital for medical treatment.
A 3 million
B 7 million
C 28 million
D 40 million
A throng of bearded men, in sad-colored garments and gray steeple-crowned hats, intermixed with women, some wearing hoods and others bareheaded, was assembled in front of a wooden edifice, the door of which was heavily timbered with oak and studded with iron spikes.
The founders of a new colony, whatever Utopia of human virtue and happiness they might originally project, have invariably recognized it among their earliest practical necessities to allot a portion of the virgin soil as a cemetery, and another portion as the site of a prison. In accordance with this rule, it may safely be assumed that the forefathers of Boston had built the fast prison-house somewhere in the vicinity of Cornhill, almost as seasonably as they marked out the first burial-ground, on Isaac Johnson's lot, and round about his grave, which subsequently became the nucleus of all the congregated sepulchres in the old churchyard of King's Chapel. Certain it is that, some fifteen or twenty years after the settlement of the town, the wooden jail was already marked with weatherstains and other indications of age, which gave a yet darker aspect to its beetle-browed and gloomy front. The rust on the ponderous iron-work of its oaken door looked more antique than anything else in the New World. Like all that pertains to crime, it seemed, never to have known a youthful era. Before this ugly edifice, and between it and the wheel-track of the street, was a grassplot, much overgrown with burdock, pigweed, apple-peru, and such unsightly vegetation, winch evidently found something congenial in the soil that had so early borne the black flower of civilized society a prison. But on one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the threshold, was a wild rose-bush, covered, in this month of June, with its delicate gems, which might be imagined to offer their fragrance and fragile beauty to the prisoner as he went in, and to the condemned criminal as he came forth to his doom, in token that the deep heart of Nature could pity and be kind to him.
This ruse-bush, by a strange chance, has been kept alive in history; but whether it had merely survived out of the stem old wilderness, so long after the fall of the gigantic pines and oaks that originally overshadowed it, or whether, as there is fair authority for believing, it had sprung up under the footsteps of the sainted Ann Hutchinson as she entered the prison-door, we shall not take upon us to determine. Finding it so directly on the threshold of our narrative, which is now about to issue from that inauspicious portal, we could hardly do otherwise than pluck one of its flowers and present it to the reader. It may serve, let us hope, to symbolize some sweet moral blossom that may be found along the track, or relieve the darkening close of a tale of human frailty and sorrow.
The atmosphere of the story in the very beginning is ______.
The founders of a new colony found it necessary to build a ______.
The prison-house mentioned in the second paragraph must be ______.
A of a long history
B of new one
C of delicate design
D of fashionable design
The rose-bush is a symbol of ______.
A Nature's inhumanity
B Man's inhumanity
C Nature's sympathy
D Harshness of society
The story that the author is going to tell may be a story of ______.
In many classrooms around the country, teachers are emphasizing, and periodically testing, students' reading fluency, the current buzzword in reading instruction. The problem is that speed isn't the only element to fluency, educators said, Key elements are also accuracy and expressiveness.
"The food was delectable" is different from "the food was detestable," and Shakespeare should not sound like a chemistry textbook.
It is a complicated process teaching students to recognize enough words and read at a consistent rate so they can spend their time concentrating on meaning rather than decoding, educators said. And when tackling a book such as "The Giver," one that deals with a boy's discovery that his utopian world comes at the expense of the stifling of intellectual and emotional freedom, meaning is critical.
"Fluent readers are readers who know how to dig into a book and pull out just what they are looking for—whether it is information, a part with strong language, a part with good character development, or just a chance to read for fun," said Susan Marantz, a longtime teacher now at a suburban school in Columbus, Ohio.
Yet u combination of politics, insufficient teacher development and an inherent difficulty in capturing all aspects of fluency have led to questionable instruction practices, according to Richard Allington, a reading researcher and University of Tennessee professor.
Many students are asked by teachers to reread the same passages over and over—often with constant interruptions from the teacher. And some struggling readers are given books—including textbooks—that are above their reading level and soon become a source of frustration.
"You can make any adult a disfluent reader by giving them books that are too hard and jump in and interrupt them a lot," Allington said. "What do you think it does to kids?"
As a result, some kids are motivated to read only to beat a test clock, he and other researchers said.
"The more important question to ask is: Are teachers focusing on all three parts of fluency?" Beers, vice president-elect of the National Council of Teachers of English, wrote in an e-mail. "When fluency is only about building automaticity (and therefore speed), then some (teachers) do mistakenly believe that the point of reading is fast decoding. That's no more the best measure of a skilled reader than fast driving is the best measure of skilled driver."
The current interest in reading fluency illustrates the complexities in the long national argument about how best to teach reading, dubbed the "reading wars."
Advocates of phonics and literature-based instruction have been at odds for years, with the argument only intensifying after a controversial 2000 report by the National Reading Panel. Many reading experts said the panel relied on a limited set of studies that supported, among other things, intensive drilling in phonics. Reading fluency also was one of the key areas for instruction, along with phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, comprehension, teacher education and computer technology. President Bush used the report as a basis for Reading First, a program to improve reading scores that became the centerpiece of his No Child Let Behind law.
Although fluency had long been identified by experts as important, it then became a hot issue.
Reading researchers began devising programs to help teachers improve students' fluency. And although there was no consensus definition of fluency, panels approving Reading First money accepted programs that used tools that stressed reading speed, according to some educators. A report by the Department of Education's inspector general this month slammed the grant-approval processing, saying it was riddled with problems and conflicts of interest.
The result, said fluency expert Tim Rasinski of Kent State University, was a massage strut to schools to concentrate on speed. "The influence of No Child Left Behind has been such that even schools that aren't Reading First schools are doing periodic (speed reading) testing of kids," he said.
In Ottumwa, Iowa, Evans Middle School did it a different way. Evans was declared a school in need of improvement in reading in 2004, and Principal Davis Eidahl said he adopted a program focused on reading fluency using a model constructed by Rasinski aimed at improving comprehension.
Some students, he said, came into the school reading fast but understanding little.
"They read so fast, with no punctuation and no expression that we'd go back and ask comprehension questions and they weren't very successful answering them." he said.
To slow them down and teach them to talk with expression and comprehension, various exercises were used, including having children read passages to each other and listen to how they sound when reading, asking students to repeat passages, and adding 45 more minutes of reading time each day, he said.
Now, 71 percent of the kids am reading at grade level, up from 58 percent two years ago. What worked, Eidahl said, was addressing all aspects of fluency, maintaining consistency and most importantly, having a quality teacher.
"It all comes down to the teacher," he said. "It's people, not programs."
In the second paragraph, the word "delectable" is ______ "detestable".
A synonym with
B antonym with
C irrelevant to
D similar to
It can be inferred from tile passage that "Giver" is a book which ______.
A contains many new and difficult words
B has many levels of meaning
C is easy to read
D is about a boy's discovery
National Reading Panel focuses on ______.
According to the author, "No Child Left Behind Law" is ______
A objective in setting its goal
B partial in its basis
C useful in addressing reading issues
D improving the reading scores of the students
It can be inferred from the passage that the key element in improving the reading ability of children lies in ______.
A No Child Left Behind Law
B ail kinds of experiments
C the students' awareness of their shortcomings
D the teachers' guidance
In sixteenth-century Italy and eighteenth-century France, waning prosperity and increasing social unrest led the ruling families to try to preserve their superiority by withdrawing from the lower and middle classes behind barriers of etiquette. In a prosperous community, on the other hand, polite society soon absorbs the newly rich, and in England there has never been any shortage of books on etiquette for leaching them the manners appropriate to their new way of life.
Every code of etiquette has contained three elements; basic moral duties; practical rules which promote efficiency; and artificial, optional graces such as formal compliments to, say, women on their beauty or superiors on their generosity and importance.
In the first category are considerations for the weak and respect for age. Among the ancient Egyptians the young always stood in the presence of older people. Among the Mponguwe of Tanzania, the young men bow as they pass the huts of the elders. In England, until about a century ago, young children did not sit in their parents' presence without asking permission.
Practical rules arc helpful in such ordinary occurrences of social life as making proper introductions at parties or other functions so that people can be brought to know each other. Before the invention of the fork, etiquette directed that the fingers should be kept as clean as possible; before the handkerchief came into common use, etiquette suggested that after spitting, a person should rob the spit inconspicuously underfoot.
Extremely refined behavior, however, cultivated as an art of gracious living, has been characteristic only of societies with wealth and leisure, which admitted Women as the social equals of men. After the fall of Rome, the first European society to regulate behavior in private life in accordance with a complicated code of etiquette was twelfth-century Provence, in France. Provence had become wealthy. The lords had returned to their castle from the crusades, and there the ideals of chivalry grew up, which emphasized the virtue and gentleness of women and demanded that a knight should profess a pure and dedicated love to a lady who would be his inspiration, and to whom he would dedicate his valiant deeds, though he would never come physically close to her. This was the introduction of the concept of romantic love, which was to influence literature for many hundreds of years and which still lives on in a debased form in simple popular songs and cheap novels today
In Renaissance Italy too, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a wealthy and leisured society developed an extremely complex code of manners, but the rules of behavior of fashionable society had little influence on the daily life of the lower classes. Indeed many of the rules, such as how to enter a banquet room, or how to use a sword or handkerchief for ceremonial purposes, were irrelevant to the way of life of the average working man, who spent most of his life outdoors or in his own poor hut and most probably did trot have a handkerchief, certainly not a sword, to his name.
Yet the essential basis of all good manners does not vary. Consideration for the old and weak and the avoidance of harming or giving unnecessary offence to others is a feature of all societies everywhere and at all levels from the highest to the lowest.
One characteristic of the rich classes of a declining society is their tendency to ______.
A be more prosperous and incite community riot
B absorb the newly rich in order to reinforce their ruling
C refuse etiquette because it is a form of barrier
D adopt a set of etiquette which belongs to themselves exclusively
Which is NOT considered as an element in etiquette?
According to the writer, part of chivalry is that ______.
A the knight should return to his castle and live there
B the knight should be valiant enough to marry the lady
C the knight should keep his love for the lady in secret fill his death
D the knight should only have a courtly love with the lady
Handkerchief was not used by ordinary people in Renaissance Italy because ______.
A they can spit and rub it inconspicuously underfoot
B it is not fashionable
C it is irrelevant to ceremonial purposes
D it is luxurious
The common etiquette observed by ail communities is to ______.
A pay a compliment to beautiful women
B respect senior citizens
C keep fingers as clean as possible
D foster romantic love for a lady
David Landes, author of The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor, credits the world's economic and social progress over the last thousand years to "Western civilization and its dissemination." The reason, he believes, is that Europeans invented systematic economic development Landes adds that three unique aspects of European culture were crucial ingredients in Europe's economic growth.
First, science developed as an autonomous method of intellectual inquiry that successfully disengaged itself from the social constraints of organized religion and from the political constraints of centralized authority. Though Europe lacked a political center, its scholars benefited from the use of a single vehicle of communication: Latin. This common tongue facilitated an adversarial discourse in which new ideas about the physical world could be tested, demonstrated, and then accepted across the continent and eventually across the world.
Second, Landes espouses a generalized form of Max Weber's thesis that the values of work, initiative, and investment made the difference for Europe. Despite his emphasis on science, Landes does not stress the notion of rationality as such. In his view, "what counts is work, thrift, honesty, patience, [and] tenacity." The only route to economic success for individuals or states is working hard, spending less than you earn, and investing the rest in productive capacity. This is his fundamental explanation of the problem posed by his book's subtitle: "Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor." For historical reasons—an emphasis on private property, an experience of political pluralism, a temperate climate, an urban style—Europeans have, on balance, followed those practices and therefore have prospered.
Third, and perhaps most important, Europeans were learners. They "learned rather greedily," as Joel Mokyr put it in a review of Landes's book. Even if Europeans possessed indigenous technologies that gave them an advantage (spectacles, for example), as Landes believes they did, their most vital asset was the ability to assimilate knowledge from around the world. and put it to use—as in borrowing the concept of zero and rediscovering Aristotle's Logic from the Arabs and taking paper and gunpowder from the Chinese via the Muslim world. Landes argues that a systematic resistance to learning from other cultures had become the greatest handicap of the Chinese by the eighteenth century and remains the greatest handicap of Arab countries today.
Although his analysis of European expansion is almost nonexistent, Landes does not argue that Europeans were beneficent bearers of civilization to a benighted world. Rather, he relies on his own commonsense law: "When one group is strong enough to push another around and stands to gain by it, it will do so." In contrast to the new school of world historians, Landes believes that specific cultural values enabled technological advances that in turn made some Europeans strong enough to dominate people in other parts of the world. Europeans therefore proceeded to do so with great viciousness and cruelty. By focusing on their victimization in this process, Landes holds, some postcolonial states have wasted energy that could have been put into productive work and investment. If one could sum up Landes's advice to these states in one sentence, it might be "Stop whining and get to work." This is particularly important, indeed hopeful, advice, he would argue, because success is not permanent. Advantages are not fixed, gains from trade are unequal, and different societies react differently to market signals. Therefore, not only is there hope for undeveloped countries, but developed countries have little cause to be complacent, because the current situation "will press hard" on them.
The thrust of studies like Landes's is to identify those distinctive features of European civilization that lie behind Europe's rise to power and the creation of modernity more generally. Other historians have placed a greater emphasis on such features as liberty, individualism, and Christianity. In a review essay, the art historian Craig Clunas listed some of the less well known linkages that have been proposed between Western culture and modernity, including the propensities to think quantitatively, enjoy pornography, and consume sugar. All such proposals assume the fundamental aptness of the question: What elements of European civilization led to European success? It is a short leap from this assumption to outright triumphalism. The paradigmatic book of this school is, of course, The End of History and the Last Man, in which Francis Fuknyama argues that after the collapse of Nazism in the twentieth century, the only remaining model for human organization in the industrial and communications ages is a combination of market economics and limited, pluralist, democratic government.
According to Landes, the main reason that some countries are so poor is that ______.
A they lack work ethic
B they are scientifically backward
C they lack rationality
D they are victimized by colonists
Lands believes that ______.
A Europeans set out to bring civilization to an unfortunate world
B the Europeans dominated other countries simply because they were strong
C the desire of Europeans to colonize other countries stemmed from specific cultural values
D the colonized countries themselves were to blame for being victimized by Europeans
The cultural elements identified by Landes ______ those identified by other historians.
"This school" (para. 5) refers to people who ______.
A believe in the absolute superiority of Western culture
B hold drastically different views from Landes
C are very cautious in linking Western culture, and modernity
D follow in the footsteps of Nazism and communism
In discussing Landes' s work, the author' s tone is ______.
______ presides over the meeting in the House of Commons and sees that parliamentary procedure is followed.
A Prime Minister
B The Speaker
C The Lord Chancellor
______ was invented by Dr. Zamenhof.
A TG grammar
C Grimm's Law
Carrie Meeber appears in ______.
A Sister Carrie
B The Scarlet Letter
C The Rainbow
______ is the largest city in Canada.
Wellington is the capital of ______.
B New Zealand
Darwin's ______ theory contributed to the decay of Victorianism.
The notion Signified vs. Signified is ______ contribution.
D. H, Lawrence employs ______ in his masterpiece The Sons and Lovers.
A Stream of Consciousness
B Oedipus Complex
D Dramatic Monologue
______ is a variety of language (usually a native language of a country) which serves as a medium of communication among groups of people with diverse linguistic background.
A Lingua Franca
______ is typical of Joseph Heller's Catch-22.
C Black humor
Clearly if we are to participate in the society in which we live we must
communicate with the other people. A great deal of communicating is (1) ______
performed on a person-to-person base by the simple means of speech. (2) ______
If we travel in buses, buy things in shops, or eat in restaurants, we are
possible to have conversations where we give information or opinions, (3) ______
receive news or comment, and very likely have our views challenged
by other members of society.
Face-to face contact is by no mean the only form of communication (4) ______
and during the last two hundred years the art of mass communication has
become one of the dominating factors of contemporary society. Two things,
above others, have caused the enormous growth of the communication industry.
Firstly, inventiveness had led to advances in printing, telecommunications,
photography, radio and television. Secondly, speed has revolutionized the
transmission and reception of communications so that local news often takes
a back seat to national news, which themselves is often almost eclipsed by (5) ______
No longer is the possession of information confined to a privileged
majority. In the last century the wealthy man with his own library was indeed (6) ______
fortunate, and today there are public libraries. Forty years ago people used to (7) ______
flock to cinema, but now far more people sit at home and turn on the TV to (8) ______
watch a program that is being channeled into millions of homes,
Communication is no longer mere concerned with the transmission (9) ______
of information. The modern communication industry influences the way
people live in society and narrows their horizons by allowing access to (10) ______
information, education and entertainment. The printing, broadcasting
and advertising industries are all involved with informing, educating
Who can say in remoteness of time, in what difference of earthly shape love first come to us as a stranger in the jungle? We, in our human family, know him through dependence in childhood, through possession in youth, through sorrow and loss in their season. In childhood we are happy to receive; it is the first opening of love. In youth we take and give, dedicate and possess --rapture and anguish are mingled, until parenthood brings a dedication that, to be happy, must ask for no return. All these are new horizons of content, which the lust of holding, the enemy of love, slowly contaminates. Loss, sorrow and separation come, sickness and death; possession, that tormented us, is nothing in our hands; it vanishes. Love's elusive entrenchment, his ubiquitous pretence, again become apparent; and in age we may reach a haven that asking for nothing knows how to enjoy.
William Menninger listed six essential qualifies that are the key to success: Sincerity, personal integrity, humility, courtesy and others. What do you think are the most important things for one to have in order to be successful? Write an essay of about 400 words entitled: The Essential Qualifies One Should Have In Order To Succeed In the first part of your writing you should state your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details (or examples). In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.