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词义辨析 occur发生,出现;occupy占用,占领;incur招致

第 1 题:Cloze:

Salt,shells or metals are still used as money in out-of-the-way parts of the world today.
Salt may seem rather a strange (1) to use as money. (2) in countries where the food of the people is mainly vegetable,it is often an (3) necessity.Cakes of salt,stamped to show their (4) ,were used as money in some countties until recent (5) ,and cakes of salt (6) buy goods in Borneo and parts of Africa.
Sea shells (7) as money at some time (8) another over the greater part of the Old World。These were (9) mainly from the beaches of the Maldives Islands in the Indian Ocean,and were traded to India and China.In Africa,shells were traded right across the (10) from East to West.
Metal,valued by weight, (11) coins in many parts of the world.Iron,in lumps,bars or rings,is still used in many countries (12) paper money.It can either be exchanged (13) goods,or made into tools,weapons,or ornaments.The early money of China,apart from shells,was of bronze, (14) in flat,round pieces with a hole in the middle.called“cash”.The (15) of these are between three thousand and four thousand years old—older than the earliest coins of the eastern Mediterranean.
Nowadays,coins and notes have (16) nearly all the more picturesque (17) of money,and (18) in one or two of the more remote countries people still keep it for future use on ceremonial (19) such as weddings and funerals,examples of (20) money will soon be found only in museums.


A object

B article

C substance

D category


A but

B and

C so

D even


A abstract

B advantageous

C abundant

D absolute


A weight

B value

C role

D size


A times

B events

C situations

D conditions


A even

B also

C still

D never


A had been used

B are used

C would be used

D would have been used


A and

B but

C yet

D or


A collected

B produced

C grown

D raised


A city

B district

C community

D continent


A processed

B produced

C preceded

D proceeded


A in spite of

B instead of

C along wim

D in line wim


A against

B as

C in

D for


A often

B seldom

C really

D much


A earlier

B earliest

C beret

D best


A replaced

B reproduced

C reflected

D recovered


A sizes

B shapes

C formats

D forms


A while

B although

C because

D if


A events

B gatherings

C occasions

D assemblies


A original

B primitive

C historical

D crude

第 2 题:Cloze:

If leadership, at its most basic meaning, (1) getting things done through others, then persuasion is one of the leader's (2) tools, Many executives have assumed that this tool is (3) their grasp, available only (4) the charismatic and the eloquent. Over the past several decades, (5) , experimental psychologists have (6) which methods reliably lead people to (7) , comply , or change. Their research shows that persuasion is governed by several principles that can be taught and applied.
The first principle is that people are more likely to follow someone who is similar (8) them than someone who is not. Wise managers, then, (9) peers to help make their cases. Second, people are more willing to cooperate with those who are not only like them but who like them, as well. So it's (10) the time to uncover real similarities and offer (11) praise.
Third, experiments (12) the intuitive truth that people tend to treat you the way you treat them. It's a (43) policy to do a favor (14) seeking one.
Fourth, individuals are more likely to keep promises they make voluntarily and (15) The message for managers here is to get commitments in writing. Fifth, studies show that people really do (16) experts. So before they attempt to exert influence, executives should take pains to establish their own expertise and not assume that it's (17) . Finally, people want more of a commodity (18) it's scarce; it (19) , then, that (20) information is more persuasive than widely available data.


A consists in

B consists of

C constitutes of

D composes of


A fundamental

B rudimentary

C elementary

D essential


A beyond

B within

C in

D out


A with

B for

C to

D at


A though

B although

C even though

D but


A studied

B learning

C examined

D investigated


A cede

B concede

C recede

D retreat


A with

B for

C to

D at


A register

B list

C enlist

D enroll


A worth

B worth of

C worth with

D worthy


A authentic

B genuine

C real

D true


A affirm

B confirm

C testify

D verify


A best

B correct

C sound

D valid


A as

B while

C after

D before


A explicitly

B implicitly

C exultantly

D introspectively


A deny

B defer to

C confer to

D refer to


A self-contained

B self-possessed

C self-opinionated

D self-evident


A where

B when

C whether

D even if


A obeys

B abides

C follows

D happens


A exclusive

B inclusive

C scarce

D reliable

第 3 题:Cloze:

Inside the classroom, some learners seem to take advantage of what's going on (1) others. It looks as if they are more (2) with the process of learning than their classmates. Teachers are aware of this too. They will (3) say that successful students possess some of all of the following characteristics.
A willingness to listen: good learners listen to what's going on-not just in the sense of paying attention, but also in terms of really listening to the English that is being used, (4) it (5) with eagerness and intelligence.
A willingness to experiment: many good learners are not afraid to " have a (n) (6) " They are prepared to take risks, to try things out and see how it works. (7) , not all successful language learners are (8) , but the (9) to use the language is an important one.
A willingness to ask questions: (10) some teachers can become irritated by students who (11) difficult questions, the urge to find out why is part of a successful learner's (12) Good teachers frequently (143) students to ask if they don't understand something. Good learners do this, judging when it is(14) to do so and when it is not.
A willingness to accept correction, good learners are prepared to be corrected if it helps them. They are keen to get feedback from the teacher and (15)what they are told. But this only (16) where teachers are able to offer constructive criticism (17) castigating them for being wrong. Giving feedback involves praising students for things they do well, and offering them the ability to do things better (18) they were less successful. It (19) teachers in judging their students' responses to correcting so that they can act (20) .



A unlike

B like

C more than

D similar to



A busy

B engaged

C satisfied

D absorbed



A occasionally

B frequently

C seldom

D usually



A soak

B having soaked

C soaked

D soaking



A up

B out

C on

D through



A endeavor

B attempt

C effort

D go



A However

B Although

C Of course

D Moreover



A introverts

B extroverts

C good learners

D hard learners



A urge

B wish

C desire

D hope



A it's reasonable that

B although

C even if

D maybe



A are asked

B are asking

C are constantly asking

D asking



A equity

B equality

C equivalence

D equipment



A appeal

B require

C invite

D request



A rational

B possible

C necessary

D appropriate



A act out

B act upon

C do away with

D do up



A does

B remains

C works

D creates



A rather not

B or rather

C rather than

D and not



A which

B what

C when

D where



A involves

B includes

C contains

D participates



A actually

B accordingly

C consequently

D subsequently

第 4 题:Cloze:

The French have a reputation of not (1) in their own homes. Impressions about this (2) in France are based upon (3) in Paris. In Paris, daily and business life is (4) busy that many families want to cling to their privacy to themselves. But If you go to other places, you will find a person as (5) as almost any in Europe.
And young people, (6) themselves from the formal standards and obligations of their parents, have become far more (7) in inviting friends as well as relatives to meals. They will usually make a few hours' (8) How much they entertain may depend upon (9) and how they live. The deeper you go into rural areas, (10) the welcome will be, and sometimes you will find young French farmers almost (11) hospitable.
In Paris, (12) smart society level, the tradition of formality still powerfully exists. Here dinner-party habits can be still Edwardian by most London standards, with printed invitation cards, probably evening dress, white-gloved waiters, rigid conventions about (13) the correct food and wines. Here people's thought is that, if you are to give a party in your own homes, then it must be done perfectly or (14) . So it is held very often. It is true that the formal tradition is (15) . But (16) in this more casual style, Parisians still wish for excellence. And they habitually stick to their little circles of (17) (48) they are truly warm and sincere, but they (19) seem to want to meet new people outside their own circle—they're too busy, too tire, and the (20) in Paris is too exacting.



A hosting

B entertaining

C amusing

D amazing



A inhospitality

B hospitality

C unhospitableness

D hospitableness



A people

B lives

C farmers

D stays



A very

B too

C so

D really



A welcome

B welcoming

C inhospitable

D formal



A free

B freeing

C freed

D being freed



A casual

B formal

C simple

D careless



A note

B notice

C invitation

D thinking



A with whom

B when

C where

D what



A colder

B warmer

C the colder

D the warmer



A disgustingly

B horribly

C embarrassingly

D exhaustingly



A at

B on

C in

D for



A providing

B supplying

C serving

D serving for



A else

B rather

C so

D not at all



A decreasing

B declining

C descending

D reducing



A even

B even if

C even though

D although



A new friends

B close friends

C relatives

D colleagues



A who

B with who

C whom

D with whom



A usually

B frequently

C occasionally

D rarely



A velocity

B tempo

C speed

D ratio

第 5 题:填空题: