Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Craze for Regimen. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below :
The Newest Addictions on Campus
A Princeton freshman, John Essenburg kept himself awake for all-night video game binges by swigging Bawls, the" traditional online gamer's drink," as he calls it, that contains four times as much caffeine as a cup of coffee. On" hardcore" gaming streaks, Essen burg says, he'd drink two a day, stay up until noon and then crash, snoozing through his classes and waking up only for dinner and more playing time. As the creator and manager of an online gaming guild that connects a hundred players from around the world, the psychology major from Englewood, Fla., says he had to set an example with six or eight hours a day." It would get to the point where I couldn't play and pass school at the same time," he says." I would have to completely uninstall (卸载) the games from my computer and spend about three weeks catching up."
Essenburg insists he-s neither a video game addict nor a caffeine junkie, attributing his habits to irresponsibility and a taste for caffeine. Experts say that both compulsions are hard to distinguish from plain old enthusiasm. "Initially [video gaming] may seem harmless," says Douglas Colvert, a psychologist at the student counseling and resource service at the University of Chicago, noting that scores of students play but only a minority become addicted. Adds Jim Lane, director of the Duke University psychophysiology laboratory:" People are less aware of caffeine as a drug than they are of alcohol land other recreational drugs that people come upon in college." But for students across the country, habits sometime scross the line into compulsion. And campus health clinics are now working to provide help for students with unhealthy dependencies on video games and caffeine.
Nearly 90% of adults take caffeine every day, according to the Journal of the American Diabetic Association .,and National Geographic has described caffeine as the world's most popular psychoactive drug. For exhausted college students facing hours of studying, it's a staple. But it can also be hard to keep track of; "energy" drinks often contain more than the amount of caffeine recommended by the Food and Drug Administration for a single serving. And research shows that people who consume as little as 100 mg of caffeine daily-only about a half cup of coffee-can develop a physical dependence that results in withdrawal symptoms, such as headache ,fatigue and irritability.
Colvert says pervasiveness(渗透性的) is part of the problem. In a college town, he points out," you can throw a rock and hit a Starbucks. " A 2006 study at Northwestern University found that 265 caffeine abuse cases were reported to a local U. S. regional poison control center from 2001 through 2004.The abusers' average age twenty-one.
"During reading period and finals week, caffeine becomes my lifeline," says Michael Wood,20,a rising senior at Princeton University. "When you know you can chug a couple Red Bulls and stay up all night, you feel much more comfortable about leaving your semester-long research project for the last weekend before it's due. "
But according to Lane from Duke University, students using caffeine as a study aid probably don't understand that it might actually work against them. Citing studies that have shown that by increasing heart rate and blood pressure, caffeine magnifies the adrenaline(肾上腺素) response in the body, Lane says students can experience something more akin to panic than alertness. "The stress of the deadline can be exaggerated by the caffeine," he says.
Binge coffee drinkers aren't the only ones who may not understand how the drug is working on their body. Students who have a cup every morning to shake grogginess might not realize that it's the caffeine that's making them fuzzy-headed in the first place. About 12 to 16 hours after consuming a morning cup of joe-in other words, around bedtime-the student will begin to go into withdrawal. They interpret the initial symptom, sleepiness,as exhaustion and go to bed. When they wake up, the withdrawal has deepened and they're now feeling unable to think straight-until they get their next cup." They're essentially drinking coffee in order to restore normal functioning rather than to feel more alert than usual," Lane says.
Gamers, too, might not understand that their playing has become a compulsion, experts say." Some of them get to the point where they have crossed a threshold, but what should seem to them to be a problem isn't disruptive enough yet," says Colvert. Compulsive playing can be especially hard to spot because, according to research done at Iowa State University, a full 80% of college students-mostly boys-play. Still, while scientists are debating whether to formally diagnose video game addiction, campus health professionals say they see certain students struggling with it.
Douglas Gentile, a developmental psychologist who runs the Media Research Lab at Iowa State University, says his research shows pathotogical(病态的) gamers often attempt unsuccessfully to cut back and lie about how often they play. They also tend to get lower grades than their non addicted peers. "There are very clear parallels to substance addictions," he says.
According to a Harris Interactive poll released in April, nearly one out of 10 youth gamers could be classified as pathological or clinically addicted to playing video games. Nathan Burba, the president of Ithaca College's video game club, says he plays for only about an hour a day because he doesn't have time for more. But not all student gamers put academics ahead of gaming. Nearly half (48%) of college gamers in a 2003 study by the Pew Research Center reported that video games kept them from studying "some" or "a lot," and 32% confessed to playing while in class. Essen burg, however, is skeptical of the diagnosis. "Excessive irresponsibility is not synonymous with addiction," he says. "It’s like comparing a chocoholic to a heroin addict."
Gentile contends that preliminary research is enough to be confident that video game addiction is a real thing in many cases. The jury is still out among the American Psychiatric Association, who have commissioned more research on the topic. For some people, Gentile adds, pathological gaming can be a telling sign of underlying conditions like depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder.
To those students who are vulnerable, a wealth of technological resources available at college, such as free wireless Internet in the dorms, can prove irresistible. "It's too easy to say, well, that won't happen to me, I'm in control," says Gentile. "I promise, every other addict of every other kind said that too. "
By taking students' concerns about their caffeine use or gaming seriously, by raising awareness and by making the appropriate referrals, health professionals on college campuses are slowly gearing up to provide help to students struggling with overuse of caffeine and video games. But for now, increasing awareness still hinges on what students tell each other. All-night caffeine-fueled video game binges do "a number on your body," says Essenburg. "I wouldn't recommend it.
How would the Princeton freshman, John Essenburg keep himself awake for all-rught video game binges?
A He would drink much wine.
B He would drink Bawls.
C He would drink a cup of coffee.
D He would drink two Cokes.
What does Jim Lane say about caffeine?
A People usually don't regard it as a drug.
B Caffeine is a kind of recreational drug.
C Students take in caffeine only in Bawls.
D Taking in caffeine is not compulsion.
According to research, what will happen to people who consume as little as lOOmg of caffeine daily?
A They will be very energetic.
B They will be irritable.
C They will be very gloomy.
D They will have withdrawal symptoms.
What does Colvert find in a college town?
A People often hit a Starbucks with a stone.
B Caffeine is pervasive there.
C There are 265 caffeine abuse cases.
D Somebody throws a rock on him.
According to Lane from Duke University, what is the consequence of taking caffeine as a study aid among students?
A It increases their heart rate.
B It will lead to alertness.
C It highlights the stress of the deadline.
D It reduces the adrenaline response in the body.
What will happen to students who have a cup of coffee every morning?
A They will shake grogginess.
B They will be more liable to sleep.
C They are made fuzzy-headed the next morning.
D They feel exhausted and go to bed.
Why is compulsion of game especially hard to spot, according to research done at Iowa State University?
A A full 80% of college students play.
B It is debated whether game addiction can be diagnosed.
C Many students tend to lie about the time they play.
D Some students don- t think it disruptive.
Douglas Gentile says his research shows that pathological gamers tend to cut back the frequency of playing computer games______.
According to a Harris Interactive poll released in April, compared with gaming, not all students give priority to______.
Gentile says that such resources as free wireless Internet in the dorms can be irresistible to students who are______.
A The woman did not accept the job offer.
B The woman does not like her new job.
C The woman is planning to start a new job.
D The woman is looking for a job at a different bank.
A She should go home now to get the CD.
B She can return the CD to Tom later.
C She can borrow a CD from Tom when she sees him in class.
D She should not have taken Tom's CD home with her.
A Rent the apartment she saw first.
B Visit her new neighbors.
C Look at other apartments before deciding.
D Write a check for the rent.
A No one has recently seen her.
B She is spending a lot of time in the library.
C She is avoiding the man.
D She has left for vacation.
A He decides not to sell the piano.
B He's looking for a right piano.
C He hasn't sold his piano yet.
D He hasn’t found a piano yet.
A She has canceled her trip to the north.
B The snow storm is getting weaker.
C The man-s information isn't accurate.
D They may also get a lot of snow.
A Put a little more pepper in the stew.
B Taste the stew to see if it needs pepper.
C Check the recipe again.
D Serve the stew as it is.
A She wants to know where Tom heard the stories.
B She's surprised Tom was so serious last night.
C Tom doesn't usually tell funny stories.
D The stories probably weren't true.
A She'll have to enroll herself again.
B She may pay for the fees later.
C She'll have to pay more.
D She'll have no place to live.
A Food in the restaurants.
B Food brought from home.
C Food in the dinning hall.
D Food cooked by herself.
A The other majors don-t provide any tuition scholarship.
B The academic advisor offers her this advice.
C She is interested in working with nature.
D Her mother prefers this major.
A To get another degree to earn more money.
B To learn more knowledge than the others.
C To be more independent.
D To become a consultant.
A For after-school teaching.
B For his class teaching.
C For his new project.
D For his new computer.
A According to the experience of his own.
B According to the needs of the users.
C According to his colleagues' recommendation.
D According to the experience of the woman.
A Whether he can afford the software.
B How he can use the software.
C The customer service.
D The quality of the software.
A Those living outdoors.
B Those in active growing and blooming.
C Those growing slowly.
D Those having been watered.
A The plants do not have proper temperature:
B The plants do not have enough water.
C The plants are not used to cold weather.
D The plants do not have enough sunshine.
A They hang a bulb on the leaves.
B They wrap the tree with plastic film.
C They cut the branches of the trees.
D They spray water on the trees.
A Military academy.
C Military post.
D Military fort.
A Basic construction.
B Military commanding.
C Academic research.
D Education of engineering.
A Students assigned by their own governments.
B Students recommended by the embassies of their country.
C Students with a good military education background.
D Students majoring in engineering from famous colleges.
A They might get a good position, in their nation's armed forces.
B They get to know different people from different backgrounds.
C They might get a big promotion after their graduation.
D They would receive the most excellent education there.
A He looks like the character in Spider-Man.
B His behaves like a spider.
C He climbed many of the world's tallest buildings.
D He likes to collect different spiders.
A The beautiful scenery in high place.
B The danger of climbing skyscraper.
C The decent income by climbing.
D The entertainment for the public,
A It provides him a new form of relaxation.
B It provides him chances of becoming famous.
C It makes him realize what is important.
D It makes him become more courageous.
There are basically three types of relationships between humanity and nature: mastery over nature (man is to (1)________nature) ,harmony with nature (man is to live in harmony with nature) ,and subjection to nature (man is dominated by nature) .
In the Western world, humanity is viewed as (2)________from nature. In particular, the North American relationship to nature is that it should be overcome and controlled. Nature and physical (3)________can be and should be controlled for human (4)________. To most North Americans, the expression "to move a mountain" is not a metaphor (5)________the impossible but rather an (6)________challenge based on past experience. The outlook of U. S. culture is that it is the person's responsibility to overcome (7)________that may stand in his or her way.
The harmony-with-nature (8)________draws on distinction between or among human life, nature and the supernatural; each is an extension of the others. (9)____________________________________________________________________ It is an experience of identification with nature.(10)____________________________________________________________________ As for Japan, God as creator is absent, and human beings therefore seek comfort by attempting to immerse themselves completely in nature.
(11)____________________________________________________________________This subjection to nature involves the belief that nothing can be done to control nature.
Leeds University study finds people classified as Internet addicts are more likely to be depressed than non-addictedusers. British psychologists have found evidence of a link between excessive Internet use and depression. Leeds University researchers, writing in the Psychopathology journal, said a small proportion of Internet users were classed as Internet addicts and that people in this group were more likely to be depressed than non-addicted users.
The article on the relationship between excessive Internet use and depression was a questionnaire-based study of1,319 young people and adults. The respondents answered questions about how much time they spent on the Internet and what they used it for; they also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-a series of questions designed to measure the severity of depression.
The report, by the university's Institute of Psychological Sciences, said 18 of the people who completed thequestionnaire-1.4% of the total-were Internet addicts." Our research indicates that excessive Internet use is associated with depression, but what we don't know is which comes first-are depressed people drawn to the Internet or does the Internet cause depression?" the article's lead author, Dr Catriona Morrison, said. "What is clear is that, for a small subset of people ,excessive use of the Internet could be a warning signal for depressive tendencies. "
The age range of all respondents was between 16 and 51 years, with a mean age of 21. 24. The mean age of the 18Internet addicts,13 of whom were male and five female, was 18. 3 years. By comparing the scale of depression within this group to that within a group of 18 non-addicted Internet users-again of a mean age of 18. 3 years and made up of 13males and five females-researchers found the Internet addicts had a higher incidence of moderate to severe depression than non-addicts.
They also discovered that addicts spent proportionately more time browsing sexually gratifying websites, online gaming sites and online communities. "This study reinforces the public speculation that over-engaging in websites that serve to replace normal social function might be linked to psychological disorders like depression and addiction, "Morrison said. "We now need to consider the wider societal implications of this relationship and establish clearly the effects of excessive Internet use on mental health.
Leeds University researchers found that Internet addicts only account for______of the Internet users.
Beck Depression, Inventory in the study is intended to measure______.
The research proved the relationship of excessive Internet use with depression, but researchers still wonder______.
The Internet addicts and non-addicted users in the research are ______in number and mean age.
The public speculates that over-engaging in Internet might lead to______.
It's Friday night, and you want to watch a movie at home with that special someone. You could go to a video store and rent a film, and instantly it’s yours; popcorn extra. Or you could go to Netflix, and the movie will arrive, earliest, on Tuesday. Here-s hoping you had a Plan B for your big date.
Ah, but you love Netflix, the online rental service that delivers movies and TV shows to your mailbox. Since its start in 1999,the company has sent more than 2 billion discs to its 10. 6 million subscribers, who return them in the familiar red envelopes for more titles. As a professional or obsessive movie watcher, I find Netflix a helpful reference source for my never-ending entertainment education. But I have misgivings about the service's usefulness, especially compared with that of a real, well-stocked video store, and about the possibly harmful effect that Netflix and other online retail outfits may have on American society.
No question, Netflix serves a need. It's a virtual video store with more than 100,000 titles-movies and TV shows. And it's cheap: for the four-at-a-time price of $ 23. 99,you could conceivably see about 50 videos a month-if you devoted your life to the task. In a deep recession, Netflix has also taught film fans that renting a movie or TV series not only is way less expensive than buying but also takes up no shelf space when you move from your foreclosed home into your parents' basement. That could be one reason DVD sales declined 13.5% in the first half of '2009,while Netflix revenues were up 21% in the year's second quarter. At the same time, movie attendance has surged 8% this year. People are watching more, owning less.
A Netflix ad has one contented couple purring," We don't miss the video store at all. " Well, I do. Specifically, I miss Kim’s Video, a lower-Manhattan movie-rental landmark that housed 55,000 DVDs and cassettes of the vastest and most eccentric variety-until it closed early this year and shipped the whole stash to Sicily. Admittedly, Kim's was one of thegems, but cities large and small used to have video stores with all manner of movies that you could see right away. With Netflix, you surrender those basic American rights: impulse choice and instant gratification. You must cool your jets for two to four days, dependent as you are on both the skill of Netflix employees to put the correct movie in your envelope(sometimes they don't) and the speed of the U.S. Postal Service. By the time a video arrives, you may have for gotten why you rented it.
According to the first paragraph, what is the author's attitude towards Netflix?
What is one of Netflix's main problems according to the passage?
A It usually boasts the lowest price.
B It requires man's full devotion to its business.
C It fails to satisfy man's immediate movie need.
D It sometimes delivers movies and TV shows improperly.
What makes Netflix's revenue rise in a deep recession background?
A The service speed of Netflix is quite satisfying.
B Netflix's renting business is cheaper and needs no placing space.
C Netflix possesses all manner of movies and shows.
D Netflix's movie on sale is less expensive and easy to place.
Why does the author miss the video store while having Netflix?
A Stores have a vast variety of cassettes and DVDs.
B Stores own all manner of movies.
C Stores meet man-s satisfaction promptly.
D Stores provide proper deliveries.
What will the next paragraph probably talk about?
A Some other existing problems of Netflix.
B The negative influence of Netflix.
C The methods to solve the problems mentioned.
D Prediction of Netflix's future.
Three hundred years ago news travelled by word of mouth or letter, and circulated in pubs and coffee houses in the form of pamphlets, newsletters. Everything changed in 1833 when the first mass-audience newspaper, The New York Sun., pioneered the use of advertising to reduce the cost of news, thus giving advertisers access to a wider audience.
Now, the news industry is returning to something closer to the coffee house. The Internet is making news more participatory, social, diverse and partisan (党派的) ,reviving the loose ethos of the era before mass media. Ordinary people are increasingly involved in compiling, sharing, filtering, discussing and distributing news through, like Twitter, Mobile-phone and some Social-networks.
The web has allowed new providers of news, from individual bloggers to sites such as The Huffington Post, to rise to prominence in a very short space of time. And it has made possible entirely new approaches to journalism, which provides an anonymous way for whistle blowers to publish documents. The news agenda is no longer controlled by a few press barons and state outlets, like the BBC.
In principle, every liberal should celebrate this. A more participatory and social news environment, with a remarkable diversity and range of news sources, is a good thing. So what, many will say, if journalists have less stable careers? All the same, two areas of concern stand out.
The first worry is the loss of "accountability journalism", which holds the powerful to account. Shrinking revenues have reduced the amount and quality of investigative and local political reporting in the print press.
But old-style journalism was never quite as morally upstanding as journalists like to think. Meantime, the Internet is breeding new forms of accountability. A growing band of non-profit outfits such as ProPublica, the Sunlight Foundation and WikiLeaks are helping to fill the gap left by the decline of watchdog media. This is still a work in progress, but the degree of activity and experimentation provides cause for optimism.
The second concern has to do with partisanship. In the mass-media era local monopolies often had to be relatively impartial to maximise their appeal to readers and advertisers. In a more competitive world the money seems to be in creating an echo chamber for people's prejudices: thus Fox News, a conservative American cable-news channel, makes more profits than its less strident(尖锐的) rivals, CNN and MSNBC, combined.
What is to be done? At a social level, not much. But as producers of new journalism, they can be cautious with fact sand transparent with their sources. As consumers, they can be catholic in their tastes and demanding in their standards. And although this transformation does raise concerns, there is much to celebrate in the noisy, diverse, argumentative and stridently alive environment of the news business in the age of the Internet. The coffee house is back. Enjoy it.
Why is the news industry closer to the coffee house nowadays?
A Ordinary people are becoming keener on news from the coffee house.
B Some social-networks create an atmosphere like in the coffee house.
C News has more character of participation, diversity and partisanship.
D Lots of advertisements about coffee houses appear in news today.
What do we know about the changes in news that the web brings about?
A Personal bloggers become the most important source of news.
B Traditional news supplier offers a nameless way of paper publicity.
C The Huffington Post is one of the state outlets in America.
D Some new sources of news soon become outstanding.
What accounts for the decline of amount and quality of local political report in the print press?
A Decreased fund of the print press.
B The regulation of local government.
C The management tactic of the print press.
D The change of reader's tastes.
Why does Fox News earn more than CNN and MSNBC?
A Fox News is fairer than CNN and MSNBC.
B Fox News reflects some prejudices.
C Fox News has more readers than CNN and MSNBC.
D Fox News is less conservative than CNN and MSNBC.
What should the Internet-age journalism manufacturers pay attention to?
A They should make themselves more strident and capable.
B They should be strict with themselves in their standards.
C They should consider more about their consumers' tastes.
D They should be discreet about facts and their sources.
Children from poor families are already a year behind in vocabulary tests when they start school, according to a research published recently.
It (1) the full impact of upbringing and home life on (2) land how those from troubled or impoverished homes can fall behind at a young age. Many never catch up with (3) classmates and become stuck in a cycle of (4) .
The report, by the Sutton Trust. (5) the importance of activities such as bedtime stories and taking children to museums and libraries. In (6) ,these appear to have a bigger impact on (7) than wealth.
It shows that home environment has an(a) (8) influence on children's academic achievement and (9) questions about whether social mobility has (10) under the present government.
Researchers from the trust. a charity that aims to cut (11) in education, said that politicians had (12) the problem by using phrases such as" Broken Britain", and polarizing the argument of whether poverty or parenting was the (13) cause.
They (14) the performance of more than12,000 five-year-olds, and found that the poorest fifth were almost a year behind pupils from middle-income families and 16 months (15) those from rich backgrounds when they started school.
The report said :"Parenting style, for example rules about bedtimes and factors like (16) reading and trips to museums and galleries, (17) up to half of the explained cognitive gap between the lowest and middle-income families."
Parenting and (18) environment were responsible for almost half of the gap in achievement, the report said. (19) possessions such as internet access, cars and good living conditions, or lack of them, caused about 30 percent of the (20) .
A under achievement
B next to
Your work is good on the whole, but_______(任然有改善的余地).
______(除非和保险公司签订保险合同) ,you are not entitled to compensation for the goods damaged in delivery.
The possible reactions of the market need______(在行动之前认真考虑).
______(因为考虑到无法收到全体成员的拥护) , he decided to give up the leadership of the society.
Since last year professor Wang ______(研究取得了重大进展).