Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Civil Servant Craze. You should write at least150 words following the outline given below :
Civil Servant Craze
Few Americans stay put (固定不动的)for a lifetime. We move from town to city to suburb, from high school to college in different states, from a job in one region to a better job elsewhere, from the home where we raise our children to the home where we plan to live in retirement. With each move we are forever making new friends, who become part of our new life at that time.
For many of us the summer is a special time for forming new friendships. Today millions of Americans vacation abroad and they go not only to see new sights but also--in those places where they do not feel too strange--with the hope of meeting new people. No one really expects a vacation trip to produce a close friend. But surely the beginning of a friendship is possible? Surely in every country people value friendship?
They do. The difficulty when strangers from two countries meet is not a lack of appreciation of friendship, but different expectations about what constitutes friendship and how it comes into being. In those European countries that Americans are most likely to visit, friendship is quite sharply distinguished from other, more casual relations, and is differently related to family life. For a Frenchman, a German or an Englishman friendship is usually more particularized and carries a heavier burden of commitment.
But as we use the word, "friend" can be applied to a wide range of relationships--to someone one has known for a few weeks in a new place, to a close business associate, to a childhood playmate, to am an or woman, to a trusted confidant (心腹朋友). There are real differences among these relations for Americans--a friendship may be superficial, casual, situational or deep and enduring. But to a European, who sees only our surface behavior, the differences are not clear.
As they see it, people known and accepted temporarily, casually, flow in and out of Americans homes with little ceremony and often with little personal commitment. They may be parents of the children's friends, house guests of neighbors, members of a committee, business associates from another town or even another country. Coming as a guest into an American home, the European visitor finds no visible landmarks. The atmosphere is relaxed. Most people, old and young, are called by first names. French Friendship
Who, then, is a friend? Even simple translation from one language to another is difficult, "You see," a Frenchman explains , "if I were to say to you in France,' This is my good friend,' that person would not be as close to me as someone about whom I said only 'This is my friend.' Anyone about whom I have to say more is really less."
In France, as in many European Countries, friends generally are of the same sex, and friendship is seen as basically a relationship between men. Frenchwomen laugh at the idea that "women can 't befriends", but they also admit sometimes that for women "It's a different thing." And many French people doubt the possibility of a friendship between a man and a woman. There is also the kind of relationship within a group--men and women who have worked together for a long time, who may be very close, sharing great loyalty and warmth of feeling. They may call one another---co pains--a word that in English becomes "friends' but has more the feeling of "pals" or "buddies". In French eyes this is not friendship, although two members of such a group may well be friends.
For the French, friendship is a one-to-one relationship that demands a keen awareness of the other person's intellect, temperament and particular interests. A friend is someone who draws out your own best qualifies, with whom you sparkle and become more of whatever the friendship draws upon. Your political philosophy assumes more depth, appreciation of a play becomes sharper, taste in food or wine is accentuated, enjoyment of a sport is intensified.
And French friendships are divided into categories. A man may play chess with a friend for thirty years without knowing his political opinions, or he may talk politics with him for as long a time without knowing about his personal life. Different friends fill different niches (合适的地方) in each person's life. These friendships are not made part of family life. A friend is not expected to spend evenings being nice to children or courteous to a deaf grandmother. These duties, also serious and enjoined, are primarily for relatives. Men who are friends may meet in a cafe. Intellectual friends may meet in larger groups for evenings of conversation. Working people may meet at the little bistro(小酒馆)where they drink and talk, far from the family. Marriage does not affect such friendships; wives do not have to be taken into account.
In the past in France, friendships of this kind seldom were open to any but intellectual women. Since most women's lives centered on their homes, their warmest relations with other women often went back to their girlhood. The special relationship of friendship is based on what the French value most--on the mind, on compatibility of outlook, on vivid awareness of some chosen area of life. German Friendship
In Germany, in contrast with France, friendship is much more articulately a matter of feeling. Adolescents, boys and girls, form deeply sentimental attachments, walk and talk together I not so much to polish their wits as to share their hopes and fears and dreams, to form a common front against the world of school and family and to join in a kind of mutual discovery of each other's and their own inner life. Within the family, the closest relationship over a lifetime is between brothers and sisters. Outside the family, men and women find in their closest friends of the same sex the devotion of a sister, the loyalty of a brother. Appropriately, in Germany friends usually are brought into the family. Children call their father's and their mother's friends "uncle" and "aunt". Between French friends, who have chosen each other for the congeniality of their point of view, lively disagreement and sharpness of argument are the breath of life. But for Germans, whose friendships are based on common feelings, deep disagreement on any subject that matters to both is regarded as a tragedy. Like ties of kinship, ties of friendship are meant to be irrevocably binding. Young Germans who come to the United States have great difficulty in establishing such friendships with Americans. We view friendship more tentatively, subject to changes in intensity as people move, change their jobs, marry, or discover new interests.
English friendships follow still a different pattern. Their basis is shared activity. Activities at different stages of life may be of very different kinds---discovering a common interest in school, serving together in the armed forces, taking part in a foreign mission, staying in the same country house during a crisis. In the midst of the activity, whatever it may be, people fall into step—sometimes two men or two women, sometimes two couples, sometimes three people--and find that they walk or play a game or tell stories or serve on a tiresome and exacting committee with the same easy anticipation of what each will do day by day or in some critical situation. Americans who have made English friends comment that, even years later, "You can take up just where you left off." Meeting after a long interval, friends are like a couple who begin to dance again when the orchestra strikes up after a pause. English friendships are formed outside the family circle, but they are not, as in Germany, contrapuntal to the family nor are they, as in France, separated from the family. And a break in an English friendship comes not necessarily as a result of some irreconcilable difference of viewpoint or feeling but instead as a result of misjudgment. where one friend seriously misjudges how the other will think or feel or act, so that suddenly they arc out of step.
What, then, is friendship? Looking at these different styles, including our own, each of which is related to a whole way of life, are there common elements? There is the recognition that friendships are formed, in contrast with kinship, through freedom of choice. A friend is someone who chooses and is chosen. Related to this is the sense each friend gives the other of being a special individual, on whatever grounds this recognition is based. And between friends there is inevitably a kind of equality of give-and-take. These similarities make the bridge between societies possible, and the American's characteristic openness to different styles of relationship makes it possible for him to find new friends abroad with whom he feels at home.
How does Americans' living style of keeping moving influence their friendship?
A It makes Americans cherish friendship very much.
B It makes Americans always make new friends.
C It makes Americans emotionally independent of each other.
D It makes Americans care more about family than friends.
Why do many Americans go abroad for holiday?
A To learn new languages.
B To learn more and relax themselves.
C To enjoy better climate.
D To see new sights and make new friends.
What is the main difficulty in making friends across countries?
A Differences in expectations about friendship.
B A lack of appreciation of friendship.
C Communication obstacles.
D Differences in living styles.
What do Frenchwomen think of friendship between women?
A They agree that women can't be friends.
B They think women's friendship is different from men's.
C Some of them believe in friendship between women.
D They believe that friendships exist only among the same sex.
In France, who undertake duties such as being nice to children or courteous to a deat grandmother?
Why did only intellectual women have friendship which was independent of their family in the past in France?
A Most women did not have a job.
B Most women did not appreciate friendships between women.
C Most women usually focused their lives on their families.
D Most women were dependent on their husbands.
Germans regard deep disagreement on any subject that matters to both of the two friends as a tragedy, because______.
A their friendships are based on common feelings
B they make friends just to enlarge their knowledge
C they consider friends the most important people in their life
D they can't tolerate any difference between each other
Due to changes in intensity of people's life, Americans view friendship______.
The basis of English friendship is______.
Different from kinship, friendships are formed through______.
A The man should take the video camera back to the store.
B The man should refer to the instruction manual.
C The woman will give some guide to the man.
D The woman will give the man her instruction manual.
A She should have studied Spanish hard.
B She could not finish the book without a dictionary.
C She could understand the book without any help.
D She shouldn't have turned to her teacher for help.
A He doesn't think Mike would give a hand to the woman.
B He thinks Mike would feel regretful if he doesn't help the woman.
C He doesn't think Mike is talented enough to deal with the viruses.
D He thinks Mike would ask for a reward from the woman.
A Making an appointment with the dentist.
B Removing tooth checking from the man's schedule.
C Having his tooth checked right away.
D Having his tooth pulled out right away.
A She may change her mind about the college.
B He doesn't know what time she arrived.
C He wishes he had met her yesterday.
D She should visit the campus again soon.
A She forgot to study for the exam.
B She had planned to go to the movie.
C The man should have invited her to the movies.
D The man should have studied for the exam.
A The woman went to the wrong place.
B The German class ended early.
C The professor cancelled the class.
D The woman forgot to go to class.
A The library will be closed later this afternoon.
B The computers in the library are not working.
C The man needs his computer all the afternoon.
D The woman lent her computer to somebody.
A It is a selfless business investor.
B It is an investor on big businesses.
C It is a business investor expecting a good return.
D It is a business investor who is successful.
A The former gets higher return.
B The former is usually larger.
C The former asks for lower interest.
D The former is of higher risk.
A The network of business angels.
B The location of the company.
C The business owner's personality.
D The company's advertisement.
A He might do more business with the company.
B He will not interfere any business of the company.
C He might involve himself in managing the company.
D He will ask his subordinate to supervise the company.
A It will travel at a speed close to that of light.
B It may bring a lot of nuclear pollution to the space.
C It can save a lot of earth's energy.
D It may hold more people in the spaceship.
A It may endanger the life on the earth and in space.
B The investment is vast more than we can afford.
C It is prohibited to use nuclear explosions in space.
D The technologies of using nuclear are underdeveloped.
A The fastest spaceship may take several thousand years to get to another star.
B Volunteers in the spaceship can live an interesting and meaningful life.
C The spaceship may come across many disasters.
D People cannot wait to experience space travel.
A Getting a sudden caught in a rainstorm.
B Sleeping with the air-conditioning on.
C Being close with flu infected people.
D Staying up late daily for a long period.
A The inactive period of flu is longer.
B The symptoms of flu develop suddenly.
C The symptoms of flu are lighter.
D The flu is harder to catch.
A Most women and children.
B People with chronic diseases.
C The elderly over 75 years old.
D The babies under six months.
A To keep warm in flu season.
B To be away from the infected.
C To get an annual flu vaccine.
D To do exercise every day.
A It is a state-owned company.
B It engages in cosmetics.
C It has its headquarters in Japan.
D It makes products out of chemicals.
A They make products only for their own shops.
B They take the way of direct door-to-door sale.
C They entrust many agencies around the world.
D They only sell their products online.
A Making a profit is the most important.
B A company should give its staff pressure.
C The customer is always right.
D Their products are of first-class quality.
A Have a talk with the speaker.
B Work till the midnight.
C Write books for her daughter.
D Cook 3-course meals for the family.
A We spend less time cooking today.
B They change our way of life.
C They make us change our appetite.
D We need to pay more for the delicious food.
A They contain a lot of sugar, fat and salt.
B They contain some unknown chemicals.
C They are produced under unsafe condition.
D They prevent our body from taking in nutrition.
Researchers have found that people's mental abilities peak at 22 before beginning to deteriorate just five years later. The results suggested that (1)_______designed to prevent or (2)_______age-related conditions may need to start earlier, long before people become pensioners.
Almost half of over 50s are "unaware of leading cause of blindness". Results focus on a conclusion that some (3)_______of age-related cognitive decline begin in healthy, educated adults when the yare in their 20s and 30s.
The study of 2,000 men and women lasted for over seven years. The respondents, aged between18-60, were asked to solve (4)_______puzzles, recall words and story details and spot (5)_______in letters and symbols. Similar tests are often used to (6)_______mental disabilities and declines, including dementia.
The research by the University of Virginia found that in 9 out of 12 tests the (7)_______age at which the top performance was achieved was 22. The first age at which performance was (8)_______lower than the peak scores was 27--for three tests of reasoning, speed of thought and spatial visualisation. (9)_________________________________________________________
However, another report found that (10)_________________________________________________________increased until at the age of 60.
(11)_________________________________________________________ , including Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison, Brian Jones, Janis Joplin and Kurt Cobain.
The U.S. government is asking Americans to eat less and exercise more in an effort to stem the country's increasing epidemic of obesity. It has issued revised dietary recommendations that emphasize proper nutrition, more physical activity, and personal initiative in maintaining a healthy weight.
U. S. law requires the government to revise its dietary guidelines every five years to keep up with the latest scientific research. Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman, whose agency is responsible for promoting healthy nutrition, says this year's update is an effort to reverse a situation where two-thirds of Americans are too heavy. The new dietary guidelines are part of the ongoing effort to help Americans adopt and keep healthier lifestyles and to address the epidemic of overweight and obesity that is affecting so many, especially our nation's children.
Secretary Veneman acknowledges that the food recommendations have not changed much over the years. They still call for diets rich in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, and limits on fatty foods and salt. This year, however, they place stronger emphasis on the importance of balancing energy intake and output, calling on people to cut their calorie consumption and exercise more. The guidelines urge adults to exercise at least moderately for no less than 30 minutes a day and children, 60 minutes daily.
The U. S. agriculture official acknowledges that past government efforts to promote a healthy diet have failed, although she notes that the public recognizes the importance of weight control as shown by the strength of the multi-billion dollar diet industry. Clearly people are reaching out for information. Have we been successful in the past? I mean certainly we've had dietary guidelines and yet we still see increasing overweight and obesity in this country.
There's not going to be a pill! So let's face it, America. There is more information out there, but it always comes back to: Eat your fruits and vegetables, watch your calorie intake, and exercise. That's as simple as it can be! Mr. Thompson says U. S. food manufacturers are responding to the need for healthier diets, especially for children. Many have reduced the amount of sugar in children's breakfast cereals and! Are promoting the whole grain and vitamin content of other foods. And as the government issued its new dietary guide lines, one of the largest U. S. food companies, Kraft, announced that it will restrict advertising of snack foods to children 12 and under and market its healthier products to this age group.
In order to prevent the increasing epidemic of obesity, American government ask people to______.
U. S. government is required to update its dietary guidelines timely to keep pace with______.
This year's guidelines put more emphasis on the importance of______.
The multi-billion dollar diet industry made the public recognize______.
Kraft announced it will promote its healthier products to______.
Jonathan Glater, a visiting assistant professor of law at the University of California, Irvine, and a former reporter at the New York Times, has published a paper called The Other Big Test: Why Congress Should Allow College Students to Borrow More Through Federal Aid Programs.
His basic proposal is this: Federal student loans offer better terms and repayment options than the highly toxic, variable rate private student loans, and so therefore the government should allow college students to borrow up to the full cost of attendance using federal loans.
The first part is true, and the second part is insane. With section titles like "Borrowing More Can Be Good" and "Learning to Love Debt," there's a lot of things about this proposal to dislike.
But my least favorite part of the plan is this: Increasing federal student loan limits will encourage students to borrow more money, because there is a perception that it's more conservative to borrow through the federal government: "Why would Uncle Sam stick me with too much debt? It must be OK !"
Mark Kantrowitz,a leading student loan expert and founder of FinAid. org, agrees with me.
"Students often treat loan limits as targets, so it is likely that this will lead to undergraduate students borrowing more than they need," Mr. Kantrowitz said in an email. "It would also lead to students enrolling at colleges they can't really afford, since they could borrow without restraint up to the full college costs. That will make it more difficult for them to repay the debt, since the debt will be out of sync with incomes. Income-based repayment does provide a safety net, but one should not need to routinely rely on such a safety net for more than a few percent of the student population. The risk with the colleges is not that they would increase tuition more than they already do given an unlimited source of liquidity(偿债能力),but rather that they would substitute the loans for institutional grants, reducing the amount and proportion of gift aid in the financial aid package. That would yield a significant real increase in the bottom line cost of college."
Glater's proposal relies heavily on the idea that the forgiveness programs on student loans really make these programs more like grants, and that they could be marketed that way. Kantrowitz called that idea a "misleading" marketing tactic that would be "ultimately very harmful. "
The solution to the college cost crisis is to increase grant aid, get serious about cutting the cost structures at public colleges, and for students and families to do everything they can to pay cash for college. Raising the federal student loan limits should not even be part of the discussion.
What do we learn from Glater's suggestion?
A Only students in private colleges can apply for private student loans.
B Private student loans have a more stable rate than federal student loans.
C Federal student loans are more beneficial to college students.
D Students can borrow the loans that cover all the college expenses.
In Glater's plan, which part does the author dislike most?
A Rising federal student loan restrictions will cause more loans on students.
B More loans may bring loss to both the government and college students.
C The government should make more strict regulations on student loans.
D It's really conservative to borrow money from the federal government.
Why would some students choose to enter colleges whose fees are beyond their financial strength?
A Those colleges may provide much scholarship for them.
B They think they could pay their fees by loans without limits.
C They could earn money by doing part-time jobs.
D Various college grants could help pay the fees.
According to Mark Kantrowitz, what is the consequence if the colleges take advantage of the loans?
A It will take students a long period to repay the loans.
B The universities would increase college fees.
C Financial aid package would be increased as well.
D College cost would be higher than without loans.
To help solve the college cost crisis, students and families should
A borrow part of the college cost by federal loans
B endeavor to pay colleges ready money
C strive for more financial aid
D appeal to cut down cost structures in colleges
Talk to any parent of a student who took an adventurous gap year (a year between school and university when some students earn money, travel, etc. )and a misty look will come into their eyes. There are some disasters and even the most motivated, organized gap student does require family back-up, financial, emotional and physical. The parental mistiness is not just about the brilliant experience that has matured their offspring; it is vicarious (引发同感)living. We all wish pre-university gap years had been the fashion in our day. We can see how much tougher our kids become, how much more prepared to benefit from university or to decide positively that they are going to do something other than a degree.
Gap years are fashionable, as is reflected in the huge growth in the number of charities and private companies offering them. Pictures of Prince William toiling in Chile have helped, but the trend has been gathering steam for a decade. The range of gap packages starts with backpacking, includes working with charities, building hospitals and schools and, very commonly, working as a language assistant, teaching English. With this trend, however, comes a danger. Once parents feel that a well-structured year is essential to their would-be undergraduate's progress to a better university, a good degree, an impressive CV and well paid employment, as the gap companies' blurbs(大肆宣传)suggest it might be, then parents will start organizing- and paying for-- the gaps.
Where there are disasters, according to Richard Oliver, director of the gap companies' umbrella organization, the Year Out Group, it is usually because of poor planning. That can be the fault of the company or of the student, he says, but the best insurance is thoughtful preparation. "When people get it wrong, it is usually medical or, especially among girls, it is that they have not been away from home before or because expectation does not match reality."
The point of a gap year is that it should be the time when the school leaver gets to do the thing that he or she fancies. Kids don't mature if mum and dad decide how they are going to mature. If the 18-year-old'sway of maturing is to hang around on Hampstead Heath soaking up sunshine or spending a year working with fishermen in Cornwall, then that's what will be productive for that person. The consensus, however, is that some structure is an advantage and that the prime mover(行动者)needs to be the student.
The 18-year-old who was dispatched by his parents at two weeks' notice to Canada to learn to be a snowboarding instructor at a cost of ￡5,800,probably came back with little more than a hangover. The 18-year-old on the same package who worked for his fare and spent the rest of his year instructing in resorts from New Zealand to Switzerland, and came back to apply for university, is the positive counterbalance.
According to the first paragraph, gap students______.
A will become more motivated and organized
B need support from their parents
C will live more harmoniously with their parents
D will get their degree more easily
What boosts the popularity of gap year?
A The example Prince William set in Chile.
B The blurbs of gap companies.
C The growth of the number of charities and private companies.
D The intervention of parents.
What is one of the reasons for the disasters in a gap year?
A Poor planning.
B Irresponsibility of the gap companies.
C Gap companies' blurbs.
D The problems of insurance.
The gap year will be meaningful for an 18-year-old if______.
A their parents help them make a thoughtful plan
B they do what they like
C they get enough financial support from their parents
D they spend time doing nothing in Cornwall
What can we learn from the last paragraph?
A The working experience from New Zealand to Switzerland is different from that in Canada.
B Earning one's living and gaining working experience will make one's gap year more meaningful.
C The high cost for a gap year is worthwhile.
D It is a positive way to have a gap year before applying for a university.
The squeeze on university places is getting ever tighter. But what does all this mean for students? The Good University Guide's John O'Leary explains that getting into university is going to be (1) this year. Of that there is no doubt, (2) the Government has slashed higher education budgets in England and (3) the 10,000 extra places it sanctioned last year.
But just how much harder? One vice-chancellor has (4) that 300,000 applicants could be disappointed this summer. That may be (5) , but it would be no surprise for the (6) to pass 200,000--roughly twice the number left without a place in 2003.
We will have a better idea of the true (7) when Universities and Colleges Admissions Service publishes its first (8) statistics of 2010. Some universities are reporting (9) of up to 20percent in the number of applications.
If that (10) of increase continues, there could be 75,000 more applicants (11) the time the places are (12) a figure that Universities UK is now using. There arc all manner of (13) built into such a forecast: early increases may not be (14) , for instance, and there may be a (15) rise in overseas applications which are not subject to the same restrictions as UK students.
What we do know, (16) , is that more applicants will be chasing fewer places on current plans. There was an existing (17) to some extra places in the first year of degree courses, but even that will leave a (18) of some 6,000 places in the summer. If Universities UK is right, there would then be 1.5 applicants (19) every place, compared with 1.3 last year. That may not sound much, but it would represent an (20) level of competition.
B even if
D now that
______(对于过惯了都市生活的人来说), the change to countryside must be hard.
Some people argue that most crime can______(归咎于对金钱的贪婪).
Nowadays the trend in business is______(为方便顾客而不是公司).
The growth of part-time and flexible working patterns______(使更多的妇女能够充分利用就业机会).
______(他没有因为罪行而受到严厉的惩罚)because he was young.